Comments: One of the most picturesque of trees. Amazingly tolerant to city conditions, soil compaction and to disturbing of the soil around the root system. Fairly easily transplanted.
Grows in a wide range of conditions. Tolerates considerable moisture, stress and drought. Responds to a good nutritional program, growing several feet per year. Young trees may need some corrective pruning. Extremely tough and tolerant to poor soils, or those abused by trampling or compaction.
Size: 40-60 ft. tall, 40-80 ft. wide.
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate.
Bark: Generally a single-stemmed tree with many large, horizontal branches. Bark is very dark annd furrowed, becoming blocky on some older trees. Wood is extremely strong and durable. One of the most resistant trees to wind and vandalism damage.
Leaves: Simple, alternate, leathery, oblong to elliptical, or narrowly ovate. 1 1//2-4 inches long, 1/2-2 inches wide, quite variable. Leaf margins are geneally smooth and unlobed on the mature twigs; however, on twigs produced in summer and young trees, leaves may have 3 or more rounded terminal lobes. On vigorous shoots or sprouts, may have sharply-toothed margins. Leaf blades are generally flat with the margins slightly rolled under. Leaves are dark green above and generally a distinct gray -green below.
Fall Color: Dark, evergreen.
Flower: Female flowers, inconspicuous; males are in long, slender, yellowish clusters in early spring.
Fruit: An acorn about 1 inch, more or less football-shaped. Generally medium to dark brown with a pronounced barb at the tip.
Pests: Gall-forming insects are unsightly but not particularly harmful.
Cultivars: Several subspecies exist.